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An early letter by Thaddeus Stevens

https://collections.lancasterhistory.org/en/permalink/lhdo910
Author
Hensel, W. U.
Date of Publication
1906
customers. �file:///Volumes/LCHS%3BLCHSFS01/OCR%20Journal%20Project/PDF%20Biblio%20Info/Pwebrecon.cgi.txt Author: Hensel, W. U. (William Uhler), 1851-1915. Title: An early letter by Thaddeus Stevens / by Hon. W. U. Hensel. Primary Material: Book Subject(s): Stevens, Thaddeus, 1792-1868 --Correspondence
  1 document  
Responsibility
by Hon. W. U. Hensel.
Author
Hensel, W. U.
Place of Publication
Lancaster, Pa
Publisher
Lancaster County Historical Society,
Date of Publication
1906
Physical Description
396-401 p. ; 23 cm.
Series
Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society ; v. 10, no. 10
Subjects
Stevens, Thaddeus, - 1792-1868 - Correspondence.
Merrill, James, - 1790-1841.
Merrill, Samuel.
Contained In
Lancaster History Library - Journal974.9 L245 v.10
Documents

vol10no10pp396_401_164345.pdf

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Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-61
Date Range
1861
Description Level
Series
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
The fifteen documents in this series cover the year 1861 and consist of letters written by Thomas Welsh to his wife and children describing his experiences as an officer in the Union Army. The series also includes letters written by Welsh's wife and children describing events at home in Columbia. The letters show Welsh to be a devoted husband and father and his family to miss him very much. Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County. The regiment served most of its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley from where many of the letters were written. The series also includes a pass for Camp Curtin, Dauphin County where Welsh served as Commandant and a letter from Otter Island, South Carolina where Welsh later served as a Colonel in the 45th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men.
Welsh lost his father at the age of 2, and went to work to support his family at age 8. He had very little formal schooling, and was largely self-educated. In 1843, at age 19, he left Lancaster County for Washington City, then went west as an itinerant carpenter/laborer to Cincinnati, Little Rock, and Fort Smith.
When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, he enlisted in a Kentucky regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of Buena Vista (1847) from which he never fully recovered. Returning home to Columbia, he re-enlisted as a second lieutenant, assigned to the 11th U.S. infantry regiment in Mexico City. Within days of his arrival in Mexico City, he was declared unfit for service on account of his battle wound, and sent home again.
Back in Columbia as a civilian, he dabbled in politics, and received a patronage job in the Pennsylvania Main Line of Public Works (the rail and canal system connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). After several years, he opened up a grocery and dry goods store in Columbia's canal basin. He also became an insurance agent. In 1857, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and his reputation grew as a community leader. By 1860, he was president of the Borough Council, a founding member of the Columbia Board of Trade, Vice President of the Columbia Cricket Club, and a canal boat operator, in addition to a dry goods merchant, insurance agent, and Justice of the Peace. He had a wife, 5 surviving children, and legal guardianship of his sister's 4 children.
When Confederate forces shelled Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County, and took them into the field as their Captain. Within days, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, which served out its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley.
Returning to Harrisburg, he was appointed Commandant of Camp Curtin, the problem-plagued processing center for new recruits. In short order, Welsh cleaned up the camp's poor sanitary conditions, improved the health of the camp, and implemented soldierly discipline and training.
In October 1861, he resigned from his camp duties, and as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania, led his regiment into the field. After brief service outside of Washington, they were sent to South Carolina in December, where they were posted to Otter Island. After the battle of James Island, they were recalled to Newport News, in July 1862, then sent to guard Aquia Creek.
In September, now in brigade command in Burnsides' 9th Corps, Welsh chased Lee's Confederate army west into central Maryland. His brigade broke the enemy line in Fox's Gap, on Sept. 14, then 3 days later achieved the furthest Union advance at Antietam, reaching the edge of Sharpsburg, and nearly cutting off Lee's only avenue of escape. Welsh's gallantry earned him a field promotion to brigadier general, which Congress confirmed on March 13, 1863.
The 9th Corps (Welsh now in command of the 1st Division) was sent west in the spring of 1863, then dispatched south to support Grant's investment of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg fell, they turned east and defeated Confederate General Johnston at the Battle of Jackson. Welsh contracted malaria in the southern swamps, and died in Cincinnati upon their return north. One of his men later recalled, "Had he lived, Welsh would undoubtedly have attained a much higher command. 1
1. Beauge, Eugene, in Albert, Allen D., Ed., History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865, Williamsport, PA: Grit Publ. Co, 1912, p. 79.
Custodial History
Cataloged by Richard C. Wiggin prior to donation.
System of Arrangement
The collection is arranged in series:
Series A Thomas Welsh before the Mexican War
Series B Mexican War, 1846-1848
Series C Between the Mexican War and the Civil War, 1848-1861
Series D Ciivil War
Series E Post-Civil War
Series F Miscellaneous Family Papers
Date Range
1861
Creation Date
1861
Creator
Wiggin, Richard C.
People
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Letters
Personal correspondence
Search Terms
Civil War
Letters
Correspondence, Personal
Extent
16 folders
Object Name
Archive
Language
English
Condition
Fair to good
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-61
Parent Object ID
MG0828
Classification
MG0828
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Box 1
Notes
Added to PP 12/23/2020 by HST
Provenance:
Most passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
MG0828_SeriesD-61_F15 is a transcription provided by Dennis Buttacavoli via email. The original is presumed by donor to be in his possession.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-62
Date Range
1862
Description Level
Series
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
The twenty-two documents in this series cover the year 1862 and consist of letters and official papers related to the military activities of Thomas Welsh, in command of the 2nd Brigade of General Orlando Willcox's 1st Division, General Burnside's 9th Army Corps, command consisting of Regiments 45th and 100th Pennsylvania, 46th New York, and 8th Michigan. The series includes letters written by Welsh to his family and letters from his family written to him. Welsh's command participated in several battles during the year including South Mountain and Antietam. Official correspondence includes reports by General Willcox and others as well as Willcox's recommendation that Welsh be promoted to Brigadier General for his bravery and conduct in battle.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men.
Welsh lost his father at the age of 2, and went to work to support his family at age 8. He had very little formal schooling, and was largely self-educated. In 1843, at age 19, he left Lancaster County for Washington City, then went west as an itinerant carpenter/laborer to Cincinnati, Little Rock, and Fort Smith.
When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, he enlisted in a Kentucky regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of Buena Vista (1847) from which he never fully recovered. Returning home to Columbia, he re-enlisted as a second lieutenant, assigned to the 11th U.S. infantry regiment in Mexico City. Within days of his arrival in Mexico City, he was declared unfit for service on account of his battle wound, and sent home again.
Back in Columbia as a civilian, he dabbled in politics, and received a patronage job in the Pennsylvania Main Line of Public Works (the rail and canal system connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). After several years, he opened up a grocery and dry goods store in Columbia's canal basin. He also became an insurance agent. In 1857, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and his reputation grew as a community leader. By 1860, he was president of the Borough Council, a founding member of the Columbia Board of Trade, Vice President of the Columbia Cricket Club, and a canal boat operator, in addition to a dry goods merchant, insurance agent, and Justice of the Peace. He had a wife, 5 surviving children, and legal guardianship of his sister's 4 children.
When Confederate forces shelled Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County, and took them into the field as their Captain. Within days, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, which served out its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley.
Returning to Harrisburg, he was appointed Commandant of Camp Curtin, the problem-plagued processing center for new recruits. In short order, Welsh cleaned up the camp's poor sanitary conditions, improved the health of the camp, and implemented soldierly discipline and training.
In October 1861, he resigned from his camp duties, and as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania, led his regiment into the field. After brief service outside of Washington, they were sent to South Carolina in December, where they were posted to Otter Island. After the battle of James Island, they were recalled to Newport News, in July 1862, then sent to guard Aquia Creek.
In September, now in brigade command in Burnsides' 9th Corps, Welsh chased Lee's Confederate army west into central Maryland. His brigade broke the enemy line in Fox's Gap, on Sept. 14, then 3 days later achieved the furthest Union advance at Antietam, reaching the edge of Sharpsburg, and nearly cutting off Lee's only avenue of escape. Welsh's gallantry earned him a field promotion to brigadier general, which Congress confirmed on March 13, 1863.
The 9th Corps (Welsh now in command of the 1st Division) was sent west in the spring of 1863, then dispatched south to support Grant's investment of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg fell, they turned east and defeated Confederate General Johnston at the Battle of Jackson. Welsh contracted malaria in the southern swamps, and died in Cincinnati upon their return north. One of his men later recalled, "Had he lived, Welsh would undoubtedly have attained a much higher command. 1
1. Beauge, Eugene, in Albert, Allen D., Ed., History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865, Williamsport, PA: Grit Publ. Co, 1912, p. 79.
Custodial History
Cataloged by Richard C. Wiggin prior to donation.
System of Arrangement
The collection is arranged in series:
Series A Thomas Welsh before the Mexican War
Series B Mexican War, 1846-1848
Series C Between the Mexican War and the Civil War, 1848-1861
Series D Ciivil War
Series E Post-Civil War
Series F Miscellaneous Family Papers
Date Range
1862
Creation Date
1862
Creator
Wiggin, Richard C.
People
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Letters
Personal correspondence
Search Terms
Civil War
Letters
Correspondence, Personal
After action reports
Extent
22 folders
Object Name
Archive
Language
English
Condition
Fair to excellent
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-62
Parent Object ID
MG0828
Classification
MG0828
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Box 1
Location of Originals
The original of MG0828_SeriesD-62_F20 is in the Antietam National Battlefield Library, 45th Pennsylvania Regimental File.
Transcription of MG0828_SeriesD-62_F21 is in the Antietam National Battlefield Library, 45th Pennsylvania Regimental File. Original claimed to be in the collection of Dennis Buttacavoli.
Notes
Added to PP 12/26/2020 by HST
Provenance:
Some items: Passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Some items: Transcription and photocopy acquired from Antietam National Battlefield Library, 45th Pennsylvania Regimental File.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-63
Date Range
1863
Description Level
Series
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
This collection of thirty-three documents covers the year 1863 and consists of letters and official papers related to the military activities and death of Thomas Welsh. The series continues the exchange of letters between Welsh and his family until his untimely death on August 14, 1863. Military correspondence includes Senate confirmation of Welsh's field promotion to Brigadier General on March 13, 1863 and Welsh's new command of the 1st Division of General Burnside's 9th Army Corps. Welsh participated in the siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, but took ill soon after. He died in Cincinnati, Ohio. Correspondence includes condolences offered to the family of General Welsh by individuals and members of the Union Army present at his death.
Note: Original series also contained two photographs.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men.
Welsh lost his father at the age of 2, and went to work to support his family at age 8. He had very little formal schooling, and was largely self-educated. In 1843, at age 19, he left Lancaster County for Washington City, then went west as an itinerant carpenter/laborer to Cincinnati, Little Rock, and Fort Smith.
When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, he enlisted in a Kentucky regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of Buena Vista (1847) from which he never fully recovered. Returning home to Columbia, he re-enlisted as a second lieutenant, assigned to the 11th U.S. infantry regiment in Mexico City. Within days of his arrival in Mexico City, he was declared unfit for service on account of his battle wound, and sent home again.
Back in Columbia as a civilian, he dabbled in politics, and received a patronage job in the Pennsylvania Main Line of Public Works (the rail and canal system connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). After several years, he opened up a grocery and dry goods store in Columbia's canal basin. He also became an insurance agent. In 1857, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and his reputation grew as a community leader. By 1860, he was president of the Borough Council, a founding member of the Columbia Board of Trade, Vice President of the Columbia Cricket Club, and a canal boat operator, in addition to a dry goods merchant, insurance agent, and Justice of the Peace. He had a wife, 5 surviving children, and legal guardianship of his sister's 4 children.
When Confederate forces shelled Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County, and took them into the field as their Captain. Within days, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, which served out its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley.
Returning to Harrisburg, he was appointed Commandant of Camp Curtin, the problem-plagued processing center for new recruits. In short order, Welsh cleaned up the camp's poor sanitary conditions, improved the health of the camp, and implemented soldierly discipline and training.
In October 1861, he resigned from his camp duties, and as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania, led his regiment into the field. After brief service outside of Washington, they were sent to South Carolina in December, where they were posted to Otter Island. After the battle of James Island, they were recalled to Newport News, in July 1862, then sent to guard Aquia Creek.
In September, now in brigade command in Burnsides' 9th Corps, Welsh chased Lee's Confederate army west into central Maryland. His brigade broke the enemy line in Fox's Gap, on Sept. 14, then 3 days later achieved the furthest Union advance at Antietam, reaching the edge of Sharpsburg, and nearly cutting off Lee's only avenue of escape. Welsh's gallantry earned him a field promotion to brigadier general, which Congress confirmed on March 13, 1863.
The 9th Corps (Welsh now in command of the 1st Division) was sent west in the spring of 1863, then dispatched south to support Grant's investment of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg fell, they turned east and defeated Confederate General Johnston at the Battle of Jackson. Welsh contracted malaria in the southern swamps, and died in Cincinnati upon their return north. One of his men later recalled, "Had he lived, Welsh would undoubtedly have attained a much higher command. 1
1. Beauge, Eugene, in Albert, Allen D., Ed., History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865, Williamsport, PA: Grit Publ. Co, 1912, p. 79.
Custodial History
Cataloged by Richard C. Wiggin prior to donation.
System of Arrangement
The collection is arranged in series:
Series A Thomas Welsh before the Mexican War
Series B Mexican War, 1846-1848
Series C Between the Mexican War and the Civil War, 1848-1861
Series D Ciivil War
Series E Post-Civil War
Series F Miscellaneous Family Papers
Date Range
1863
Creation Date
1863
Creator
Wiggin, Richard C.
People
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Letters
Personal correspondence
Telegraph
Military orders
Search Terms
Civil War
Letters
Correspondence, Personal
Telegrams
Military orders
Extent
35 folders
Object Name
Archive
Language
English
Condition
Poor to excellent
Condition Date
2020-12-26
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-63
Parent Object ID
MG0828
Classification
MG0828
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Box 1
Notes
Added to PP 12/26/2020 by HST
Provenance:
Most items passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Transcription of MG0828_SeriesD-63_F15 provided by Dennis Buttacavoli via email. The original is presumably in his possession.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesF
Date Range
1815-1938
Description Level
Series
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
This collection of documents, newspapers, and newspaper clippings covers the years 1815 through 1929 as well as genealogy and ephemera from the Welsh family Bible, 1850 through 1938. In addition, the series also includes 2 scrapbooks - the first containing articles from the late nineteenth century pertaining to Thomas Welsh and his family; the second containing newspaper articles and ephemera related to Thomas Welsh and his family from 1854 through 1936.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men.
Welsh lost his father at the age of 2, and went to work to support his family at age 8. He had very little formal schooling, and was largely self-educated. In 1843, at age 19, he left Lancaster County for Washington City, then went west as an itinerant carpenter/laborer to Cincinnati, Little Rock, and Fort Smith.
When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, he enlisted in a Kentucky regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of Buena Vista (1847) from which he never fully recovered. Returning home to Columbia, he re-enlisted as a second lieutenant, assigned to the 11th U.S. infantry regiment in Mexico City. Within days of his arrival in Mexico City, he was declared unfit for service on account of his battle wound, and sent home again.
Back in Columbia as a civilian, he dabbled in politics, and received a patronage job in the Pennsylvania Main Line of Public Works (the rail and canal system connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). After several years, he opened up a grocery and dry goods store in Columbia's canal basin. He also became an insurance agent. In 1857, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and his reputation grew as a community leader. By 1860, he was president of the Borough Council, a founding member of the Columbia Board of Trade, Vice President of the Columbia Cricket Club, and a canal boat operator, in addition to a dry goods merchant, insurance agent, and Justice of the Peace. He had a wife, 5 surviving children, and legal guardianship of his sister's 4 children.
When Confederate forces shelled Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County, and took them into the field as their Captain. Within days, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, which served out its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley.
Returning to Harrisburg, he was appointed Commandant of Camp Curtin, the problem-plagued processing center for new recruits. In short order, Welsh cleaned up the camp's poor sanitary conditions, improved the health of the camp, and implemented soldierly discipline and training.
In October 1861, he resigned from his camp duties, and as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania, led his regiment into the field. After brief service outside of Washington, they were sent to South Carolina in December, where they were posted to Otter Island. After the battle of James Island, they were recalled to Newport News, in July 1862, then sent to guard Aquia Creek.
In September, now in brigade command in Burnsides' 9th Corps, Welsh chased Lee's Confederate army west into central Maryland. His brigade broke the enemy line in Fox's Gap, on Sept. 14, then 3 days later achieved the furthest Union advance at Antietam, reaching the edge of Sharpsburg, and nearly cutting off Lee's only avenue of escape. Welsh's gallantry earned him a field promotion to brigadier general, which Congress confirmed on March 13, 1863.
The 9th Corps (Welsh now in command of the 1st Division) was sent west in the spring of 1863, then dispatched south to support Grant's investment of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg fell, they turned east and defeated Confederate General Johnston at the Battle of Jackson. Welsh contracted malaria in the southern swamps, and died in Cincinnati upon their return north. One of his men later recalled, "Had he lived, Welsh would undoubtedly have attained a much higher command. 1
1. Beauge, Eugene, in Albert, Allen D., Ed., History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865, Williamsport, PA: Grit Publ. Co, 1912, p. 79.
Custodial History
Folders 1-35 organized by Richard C. Wiggin prior to donation.
System of Arrangement
The collection is arranged in series:
Series A Thomas Welsh before the Mexican War
Series B Mexican War, 1846-1848
Series C Between the Mexican War and the Civil War, 1848-1861
Series D Ciivil War
Series E Post-Civil War
Series F Miscellaneous Family Papers
Date Range
1815-1938
Creation Date
1815-1938
Year Range From
1815
Year Range To
1938
Creator
Wiggin, Richard C.
People
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
Condolence notes
Letters
Genealogy
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Search Terms
Condolence notes
Letters
Correspondence
Mexican War
Genealogy
Civil War
Extent
35 folders
Object Name
Archive
Language
English
Condition
Poor to excellent
Condition Date
2020-12-29
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesF
Parent Object ID
MG0828
Classification
MG0828
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Boxes 1-2
Notes
Added to PP 12/29/2020 by HST
Provenance: Passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend.~~Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828
Date Range
1839-1932
Description Level
Fonds
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
The General Thomas Welsh Family Papers is a collection of original correspondence, official documents, and ephemera. Many of the papers were created by or directed to Thomas Welsh between approximately 1843 and his death in 1863. They provide glimpses into his youth, his experiences in the Mexican War, his life in Columbia between the wars, and his rise in rank to Brigadier General during the Civil War.
The collection contains correspondence with his wife and family from 1861-1863. There are also official correspondence and documents related to Welsh's military service, autobiographical pieces, correspondence following his death, obituaries, and family papers into the early twentieth century. Other items in the collection include genealogy pages from the family bible, photographic images of Thomas Welsh and family members, two scrapbooks, newspaper issues and newspaper clippings, written notes from recollections of one of Welsh's daughter, and a biographical sketch of Welsh written by his son.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men.
Welsh lost his father at the age of 2, and went to work to support his family at age 8. He had very little formal schooling, and was largely self-educated. In 1843, at age 19, he left Lancaster County for Washington City, then went west as an itinerant carpenter/laborer to Cincinnati, Little Rock, and Fort Smith.
When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, he enlisted in a Kentucky regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of Buena Vista (1847) from which he never fully recovered. Returning home to Columbia, he re-enlisted as a second lieutenant, assigned to the 11th U.S. infantry regiment in Mexico City. Within days of his arrival in Mexico City, he was declared unfit for service on account of his battle wound, and sent home again.
Back in Columbia as a civilian, he dabbled in politics, and received a patronage job in the Pennsylvania Main Line of Public Works (the rail and canal system connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). After several years, he opened up a grocery and dry goods store in Columbia's canal basin. He also became an insurance agent. In 1857, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and his reputation grew as a community leader. By 1860, he was president of the Borough Council, a founding member of the Columbia Board of Trade, Vice President of the Columbia Cricket Club, and a canal boat operator, in addition to a dry goods merchant, insurance agent, and Justice of the Peace. He had a wife, 5 surviving children, and legal guardianship of his sister's 4 children.
When Confederate forces shelled Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County, and took them into the field as their Captain. Within days, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, which served out its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley.
Returning to Harrisburg, he was appointed Commandant of Camp Curtin, the problem-plagued processing center for new recruits. In short order, Welsh cleaned up the camp's poor sanitary conditions, improved the health of the camp, and implemented soldierly discipline and training.
In October 1861, he resigned from his camp duties, and as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania, led his regiment into the field. After brief service outside of Washington, they were sent to South Carolina in December, where they were posted to Otter Island. After the battle of James Island, they were recalled to Newport News, in July 1862, then sent to guard Aquia Creek.
In September, now in brigade command in Burnsides' 9th Corps, Welsh chased Lee's Confederate army west into central Maryland. His brigade broke the enemy line in Fox's Gap, on Sept. 14, then 3 days later achieved the furthest Union advance at Antietam, reaching the edge of Sharpsburg, and nearly cutting off Lee's only avenue of escape. Welsh's gallantry earned him a field promotion to brigadier general, which Congress confirmed on March 13, 1863.
The 9th Corps (Welsh now in command of the 1st Division) was sent west in the spring of 1863, then dispatched south to support Grant's investment of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg fell, they turned east and defeated Confederate General Johnston at the Battle of Jackson. Welsh contracted malaria in the southern swamps, and died in Cincinnati upon their return north. One of his men later recalled, "Had he lived, Welsh would undoubtedly have attained a much higher command. 1
1. Beauge, Eugene, in Albert, Allen D., Ed., History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865, Williamsport, PA: Grit Publ. Co, 1912, p. 79.
Custodial History
Almost all of the papers have been passed down through successive generations of Welsh's descendants, from Thomas Welsh's wife and children to his granddaughter, Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin, to her daughter Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. After Nancy Townsend's death, her son Charles Townsend passed them on to his cousin, Richard Wiggin (grandson of Emilie Benson Wiggin) in 2015.
A few papers passed out of the family's possession and found their way into other collections. Richard Abel of Columbia, PA began collecting Welsh papers and artifacts some years ago, and subsequently transferred this collection of Welsh materials to Richard Wiggin in 2012.
System of Arrangement
The collection is arranged in series:
Series A Thomas Welsh before the Mexican War
Series B Mexican War, 1846-1848
Series C Between the Mexican War and the Civil War, 1848-1861
Series D Ciivil War
Series E Post-Civil War
Series F Miscellaneous Family Papers
Date Range
1839-1932
Year Range From
1839
Year Range To
1932
Creator
Wiggin, Richard C.
People
Welsh, Thomas
Welsh, Annie Eunice Young
Welsh, Blanton Charles
Welsh, Effie
Welsh, Lilian
Welsh, Mary Young "Mazie"
Buchanan, James
Subjects
Letters
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Military orders
Military promotions
Personal correspondence
Political campaigns
Presidents--Election
Speeches, addresses, etc.
United States. Army--Military life
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Search Terms
Civil War
Correspondence, Personal
Letters
Mexican War
Military life
Military orders
Military promotions
Political campaigns
Presidential elections
Speeches
United States Army
Object Name
Archive
Language
English
Condition
Fair to good
Condition Date
2020-12-18
Condition Notes
Items are in fair to good condition.
Object ID
MG0828
Classification
MG0828
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pa.
Less detail
Collection
James Buchanan Family Papers
Object ID
JBFP Part 8 Series 2
  1 document  
Description Level
Series
Collection
James Buchanan Family Papers
Description
James Buchanan Family Papers, Part 8 Papers of Others (Not Part of the Family), Series 2 contains financial and legal documents. Series 2 includes financial and legal documents within three subseries. Subseries 1 has bills, receipts, ledgers and accounts. Subseries 2 has deeds and land records. Subseries 3 has legal papers.
The financial and legal documents are arranged chronologically, spanning almost 100 years, from 1770 through 1866. The bulk of the items, dated between 1784 and 1790, are promissory notes, receipts of payment and rental slips. There is a large gap between 1790 and 1849. The items from the 1800s include bills of sale, accounts and receipts. The deeds and land records include one hand-drawn survey for an unknown location (1858) and a title report for property in Warren County, New York (1865). The legal papers include documents filed with the courts, transcriptions of a legislative act from Maryland, notes, purchase contract, as well as two foreign documents, possibly a German enlistment record and a Swedish passport, both for Eugene Francois Theodore de la Croix.
Admin/Biographical History
The origination of many of the items contained in this part of the collection are unknown. It is also unclear of the relationship they have with James Buchanan. In the first subseries, there are two names that reappear often from 1770 to 1790, Daniel McCausland and James Crawford. All of these items are either promissory notes, receipts of payment of loans or letters from Daniel to James requesting that he pay a certain sum to the bearer of the note and the reverse would show the receipt of payment of that loan. There is some mention of a Revolutionary War Colonel James Crawford from Lancaster and Daniel addresses one of the notes to "Col. Crawford" so this may be the same individual. (See 8.2.1.001) There is a gap in the receipts and promissory notes from 1790 to 1849. This is also where we see the money on the documents change from pounds and shillings to dollars and cents. There is a bill of sale of the Lancaster Intelligencer newspaper from Edwin W. Hutter by a S. Boyd Hamilton in July 1849, as well as some follow up correspondence regarding that sale. However, in an article published in the Intelligencer on August 7, 1849, Mr. Hutter states that his successor is Captain George Sanderson of Carlisle, Pennsylvania (Lancaster Intelligencer, August 7, 1849, p. 2), which is confirmed in the December 4, 1849 edition which names the editor as "Geo. Sanderson (Lancaster Intelligencer, December 4, 1849, p. 1). The name McCausland reappears in the next subseries for legal papers, however, it is not a William McCausland, Jr. This is in reference to a law suit he filed against James Crawford and William McCausland for money due to him in outstanding rents and profits. There is a deposition notice addressed to "Col. Crawford" so it is likely to be the same James Crawford who had business dealings with Daniel McCausland.
An interesting piece in this subseries is a large transcript of the Court Papers filed in the action by the stockholders of the Marietta & Susquehanna Trading Company against five of their Trustees. The Trustees were entrusted to resolve the company and collect all outstanding debts. However due to a robbery at the bank wherein all of the notes were stolen, they were unable to collect any of the debts. The background of this case is illustrated in Francis Lyman's A Mysterious Bank Robbery (LCHSR 905.748 HSP v. 94, p. 384-385), where it is alleged that one of the Trustees/Defendants, Jacob Grosh, committed the crime. The remaining items are random and vague in the origination and contextual relationship.
1 Ellis, F & Evans, S. (1883). History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Everetts & Peck. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=WsQxAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA52&dq=%22James+Crawford%22+Lancaster,+PA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDkQ6AEwBWoVChMIhPb155rHyAIVAV0eCh2FDgt6#v=onepage&q=%22James%20Crawford%22%20Lancaster%2C%20PA&f=false
Custodial History
The James Buchanan Family Papers were collected by the James Buchanan Foundation for the Preservation of Wheatland. This collection was relocated from the Wheatland mansion to the LancasterHistory archives in the Spring of 2009. Digitization of the James Buchanan Family Papers was funded by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, PHMC Appl ID # 201808013051, 2019-2020.
System of Arrangement
JBFP Part 8 Series 2 Financial and Legal Documents
Subseries 1 Bills, Receipts, Ledgers, Accounts
Subseries 2 Deeds and Land Records
Subseries 3 Legal Papers
Year Range From
1770
Year Range To
1866
Creator
James Buchanan Foundation for the Preservation of Wheatland (Lancaster, Pa.)
People
Buchanan, James
Cameron, Simon
Curtis, George Ticknor
Drayton, John Grimke
Foltz, Jonathan Messersmith
Foster, Stephen Collins
Foster, Morrison
Johnston, Harriet Lane
Muhlenberg, Henry Augustus
Subjects
Buchanan, James, 1791-1868
Cameron, Simon, 1799-1889
Curtis, George Ticknor, 1812-1894
Drayton, John G. (John Grimke), 1815-1891
Foltz, Jonathan Messersmith, 1810-1877
Foster, Stephen Collins, 1826-1864
Foster, Morrison, 1823-1904
Johnston, Harriet Lane, 1830-1903
Letters
Muhlenberg, Henry A. (Henry Augustus), 1823-1854
Wheatland (Lancaster, Pa.)
Personal correspondence
Search Terms
Correspondence, Personal
Letters
Wheatland
Finding aids
Manuscript groups
Buchanan Collections
James Buchanan Presidential Library
Extent
1 box, 36 folders, 39 items, .5 cubic feet
Object Name
Archive
Language
English, German, Swedish
Object ID
JBFP Part 8 Series 2
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives South
Wall
Side 18
Associated Material
James Buchanan Papers, Dickinson College Archives & Special Collections http://archives.dickinson.edu/collection-descriptions/james-buchanan-papers
James Buchanan and Harriet Lane Johnston Papers, Library of Congress https://www.loc.gov/collections/james-buchanan-and-harriet-lane-johnston-papers/
James Buchanan Papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, http://www2.hsp.org/collections/manuscripts/b/Buchanan0091.html
James Buchanan Papers, Penn State University Libraries, https://libraries.psu.edu/findingaids/1458.htm
Archives of Maryland Online. Session Laws 1862. (Vol 532. Pg. 267). Retrieved from: http://aomol.msa.maryland.gov/000001/000532/html/am532--267.html
Related Item Notes
James Buchanan Family Papers
James Buchanan Collection, MG0096
Historical Society of Pennsylvania microfilm
Photograph collections
Curatorial collections
Wheatland Mansion
Charles S. Foltz, Surgeon of the Seas: The Adventurous Life of Surgeon General Jonathan M. Foltz In the Days of Wooden Ships, Told from His Notes of the Moment. Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1931. Call # 923.5 F671f
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available.
Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material. Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Documents
Less detail

A Benjamin Franklin letter

https://collections.lancasterhistory.org/en/permalink/lhdo3682
Author
Worner, William Frederic.
Date of Publication
1923
  1 document  
Responsibility
by William Frederic Worner.
Author
Worner, William Frederic.
Place of Publication
Lancaster, Pa
Publisher
Lancaster County Historical Society,
Date of Publication
1923
Physical Description
103 p. ; 23 cm.
Series
Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society ; v. 27, no. 5
Summary
Worner presents the text of a letter from Benjamin Franklin to Edward Shippen in 1755. Franklin, as a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly, was informing Shippen that he had arranged for two men to work on "the road" [Braddock's road?] and that they would report to Shippen for directions. The writer of this article did not know what "the road " was. He says he cited the letter only because it was one of few letters written by Franklin to someone in Lancaster.
Subjects
Shippen, Edward, - 1703-1781 - Correspondence.
Franklin, Benjamin, - 1706-1790 - Correspondence.
Contained In
Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society. Volume 27, number 1 (1923), p. 103Lancaster History Library - Journal974.9 L245 v.27
Documents
Less detail
Collection
James Buchanan Family Papers, Part 3 James Buchanan Henry
Object ID
JBFP 3.1.1.025
Date Range
1858/11/10
  2 documents     4 images  
Description Level
Item
Collection
James Buchanan Family Papers, Part 3 James Buchanan Henry
Description
Note on back of James Buchanan Henry’s calling card to Mary Hagner Nicholson expressing regrets that he cannot see her today but will definitely see her tomorrow. Envelope with stamp and postmark addressed to Miss Mary H. Nicholson, Annapolis, Maryland. Washington, D.C.
Custodial History
The James Buchanan Family Papers were collected by the James Buchanan Foundation for the Preservation of Wheatland. This collection was relocated from the Wheatland mansion to the LancasterHistory archives in the Spring of 2009. Digitization of the James Buchanan Family Papers was funded by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, PHMC Appl ID # 201808013051, 2019-2020.
Date Range
1858/11/10
Creator
Henry, James Buchanan, 1833-1915
People
Henry, James Buchanan
Henry, Mary Hagner Nicholson
Subjects
Personal correspondence
Letters
Search Terms
Correpondence
Correspondence, Personal
Letters
Buchanan Collections
James Buchanan Presidential Library
Extent
2 items, 4 pages to scan, 2 x 3.25 in. and 3 x 5.5 in.
Object Name
Card, Calling
Language
English
Accession Number
JBMS1996.385a-b
Object ID
JBFP 3.1.1.025
Parent Object ID
JBFP Part 3 Series 1
Other Number
JBFP Part 3, Series 1, Subseries 1, Folder 25
Location
LancasterHistory, Lancaster, PA
Room
Archives South
Container
JBFP Part 3, Box 1
Associated Material
James Buchanan Papers, Dickinson College Archives & Special Collections,
http://archives.dickinson.edu/collection-descriptions/james-buchanan-papers
James Buchanan and Harriet Lane Johnston Papers, Library of Congress,
https://www.loc.gov/collections/james-buchanan-and-harriet-lane-johnston-papers/
James Buchanan Papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania,
http://www2.hsp.org/collections/manuscripts/b/Buchanan0091.html
James Buchanan Papers, Penn State University Libraries,
https://libraries.psu.edu/findingaids/1458.htm
Related Item Notes
James Buchanan Family Papers
MG-96 James Buchanan Collection
Historical Society of Pennsylvania microfilm
Photograph collections
Curatorial collections
Wheatland Mansion
Notes
May 2020 PastPerfect Conversion
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pa.
Images
Documents
Less detail
Author
Kloidt, William.
Date of Publication
1994
Call Number
974.815 COLU K66
Responsibility
by Bill Kloidt, Sr.
Author
Kloidt, William.
Place of Publication
Columbia, Pa
Publisher
Mifflin Press
Date of Publication
1994
Physical Description
vii, 248 p. 19 cm.
Subjects
Columbia (Pa.) - Correspondence.
Location
Lancaster History Library - Book
Call Number
974.815 COLU K66
Less detail

1347 records – page 1 of 135.