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Alta California : embracing notices of the climate, soil, and agricultural products of northern Mexico and the Pacific seaboard : also, a history of the military and naval operations of the United States directed against the territories of northern Mexico, in the year 1846-'47 : with documents declaratory of the policy of the present administration of the national government in regard to the annexation of conquered territory to this union, and the opinion of the Hon. James Buchanan on the Wilmot Proviso, &c

https://collections.lancasterhistory.org/en/permalink/lhdo18954
Author
Captain of volunteers.
Date of Publication
1847.
Call Number
979.4403 C254
  1 website  
Responsibility
by a Captain of volunteers.
Author
Captain of volunteers.
Place of Publication
Philadelphia
Publisher
H. Packer & Co. ...,
Date of Publication
1847.
Physical Description
[2], 5-64 p. (first leaf blank) ; 25 cm.
Notes
This copy is a reproduction ISBN 0548410593.
Description of area: p. 9-12; history and documentation: p. 13-64.
Anti-annexation tract.
Summary
The 1847 publication briefly address climate soil and agriculture in Alta and Baja California in chapter I. The following eight chapters consist of communications from the U.S. Government consisting of instructions in the event Mexico declared war, justification of and motives for war, various reports to Washington, communications with Mexican officials in Alta California, accounts of the military operations in California, the articles of capitulation entered into at Rancho of Cowanga on January 13, 1847, all of which are interspersed with personal observations and comments by the author. The final chapter deals with the question of whether slavery would be allowed in California, the policy of the South and its motive for a slave market and emigrants to California and Northern Mexico [from California State University's Digital Commons]
Subjects
Buchanan, James, - 1791-1868.
Mexican War, 1846-1848.
California - Description and travel.
California - History - 1846-1850.
Mexico, North - Description and travel.
California - Annexation to the United States.
Place
United States Pennsylvania Philadelphia.
Location
Lancaster History Library - Book
Call Number
979.4403 C254
Websites
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesB
Date Range
1846-1848
Description Level
Series
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
The fourteen documents in this series cover the period 1846 through 1848 and chronicles Welsh's military service during the Mexican War. The series consists of letters written by Thomas Welsh to various family members, friends and government officials (including James Buchanan) describing his experiences as a volunteer soldier, the wounds he received at the Battle of Buena Vista in 1847 and his efforts to secure a pension for the injuries he received in battle. The series also includes documents related to his subsequent appointment as a second lieutenant, his ongoing support for the war despite the injuries he received and his desire to continue to serve in the peacetime army.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men.
Welsh lost his father at the age of 2, and went to work to support his family at age 8. He had very little formal schooling, and was largely self-educated. In 1843, at age 19, he left Lancaster County for Washington City, then went west as an itinerant carpenter/laborer to Cincinnati, Little Rock, and Fort Smith.
When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, he enlisted in a Kentucky regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of Buena Vista (1847) from which he never fully recovered. Returning home to Columbia, he re-enlisted as a second lieutenant, assigned to the 11th U.S. infantry regiment in Mexico City. Within days of his arrival in Mexico City, he was declared unfit for service on account of his battle wound, and sent home again.
Back in Columbia as a civilian, he dabbled in politics, and received a patronage job in the Pennsylvania Main Line of Public Works (the rail and canal system connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). After several years, he opened up a grocery and dry goods store in Columbia's canal basin. He also became an insurance agent. In 1857, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and his reputation grew as a community leader. By 1860, he was president of the Borough Council, a founding member of the Columbia Board of Trade, Vice President of the Columbia Cricket Club, and a canal boat operator, in addition to a dry goods merchant, insurance agent, and Justice of the Peace. He had a wife, 5 surviving children, and legal guardianship of his sister's 4 children.
When Confederate forces shelled Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County, and took them into the field as their Captain. Within days, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, which served out its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley.
Returning to Harrisburg, he was appointed Commandant of Camp Curtin, the problem-plagued processing center for new recruits. In short order, Welsh cleaned up the camp's poor sanitary conditions, improved the health of the camp, and implemented soldierly discipline and training.
In October 1861, he resigned from his camp duties, and as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania, led his regiment into the field. After brief service outside of Washington, they were sent to South Carolina in December, where they were posted to Otter Island. After the battle of James Island, they were recalled to Newport News, in July 1862, then sent to guard Aquia Creek.
In September, now in brigade command in Burnsides' 9th Corps, Welsh chased Lee's Confederate army west into central Maryland. His brigade broke the enemy line in Fox's Gap, on Sept. 14, then 3 days later achieved the furthest Union advance at Antietam, reaching the edge of Sharpsburg, and nearly cutting off Lee's only avenue of escape. Welsh's gallantry earned him a field promotion to brigadier general, which Congress confirmed on March 13, 1863.
The 9th Corps (Welsh now in command of the 1st Division) was sent west in the spring of 1863, then dispatched south to support Grant's investment of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg fell, they turned east and defeated Confederate General Johnston at the Battle of Jackson. Welsh contracted malaria in the southern swamps, and died in Cincinnati upon their return north. One of his men later recalled, "Had he lived, Welsh would undoubtedly have attained a much higher command. 1
1. Beauge, Eugene, in Albert, Allen D., Ed., History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865, Williamsport, PA: Grit Publ. Co, 1912, p. 79.
Custodial History
Cataloged by Richard C. Wiggin prior to donation.
System of Arrangement
The collection is arranged in series:
Series A Thomas Welsh before the Mexican War
Series B Mexican War, 1846-1848
Series C Between the Mexican War and the Civil War, 1848-1861
Series D Ciivil War
Series E Post-Civil War
Series F Miscellaneous Family Papers
Date Range
1846-1848
Creation Date
1846-1848
Year Range From
1846
Year Range To
1848
Creator
Wiggin, Richard C.
People
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Search Terms
Mexican War
Extent
14 items
Object Name
Archive
Language
English
Condition
Fair to good
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesB
Parent Object ID
MG0828
Classification
MG0828
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Box 1
Notes
Added to PP 12/19/2020 by HST
Provenance: Passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828
Date Range
1839-1932
Description Level
Fonds
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
The General Thomas Welsh Family Papers is a collection of original correspondence, official documents, and ephemera. Many of the papers were created by or directed to Thomas Welsh between approximately 1843 and his death in 1863. They provide glimpses into his youth, his experiences in the Mexican War, his life in Columbia between the wars, and his rise in rank to Brigadier General during the Civil War.
The collection contains correspondence with his wife and family from 1861-1863. There are also official correspondence and documents related to Welsh's military service, autobiographical pieces, correspondence following his death, obituaries, and family papers into the early twentieth century. Other items in the collection include genealogy pages from the family bible, photographic images of Thomas Welsh and family members, two scrapbooks, newspaper issues and newspaper clippings, written notes from recollections of one of Welsh's daughter, and a biographical sketch of Welsh written by his son.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men.
Welsh lost his father at the age of 2, and went to work to support his family at age 8. He had very little formal schooling, and was largely self-educated. In 1843, at age 19, he left Lancaster County for Washington City, then went west as an itinerant carpenter/laborer to Cincinnati, Little Rock, and Fort Smith.
When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, he enlisted in a Kentucky regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of Buena Vista (1847) from which he never fully recovered. Returning home to Columbia, he re-enlisted as a second lieutenant, assigned to the 11th U.S. infantry regiment in Mexico City. Within days of his arrival in Mexico City, he was declared unfit for service on account of his battle wound, and sent home again.
Back in Columbia as a civilian, he dabbled in politics, and received a patronage job in the Pennsylvania Main Line of Public Works (the rail and canal system connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). After several years, he opened up a grocery and dry goods store in Columbia's canal basin. He also became an insurance agent. In 1857, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and his reputation grew as a community leader. By 1860, he was president of the Borough Council, a founding member of the Columbia Board of Trade, Vice President of the Columbia Cricket Club, and a canal boat operator, in addition to a dry goods merchant, insurance agent, and Justice of the Peace. He had a wife, 5 surviving children, and legal guardianship of his sister's 4 children.
When Confederate forces shelled Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County, and took them into the field as their Captain. Within days, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, which served out its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley.
Returning to Harrisburg, he was appointed Commandant of Camp Curtin, the problem-plagued processing center for new recruits. In short order, Welsh cleaned up the camp's poor sanitary conditions, improved the health of the camp, and implemented soldierly discipline and training.
In October 1861, he resigned from his camp duties, and as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania, led his regiment into the field. After brief service outside of Washington, they were sent to South Carolina in December, where they were posted to Otter Island. After the battle of James Island, they were recalled to Newport News, in July 1862, then sent to guard Aquia Creek.
In September, now in brigade command in Burnsides' 9th Corps, Welsh chased Lee's Confederate army west into central Maryland. His brigade broke the enemy line in Fox's Gap, on Sept. 14, then 3 days later achieved the furthest Union advance at Antietam, reaching the edge of Sharpsburg, and nearly cutting off Lee's only avenue of escape. Welsh's gallantry earned him a field promotion to brigadier general, which Congress confirmed on March 13, 1863.
The 9th Corps (Welsh now in command of the 1st Division) was sent west in the spring of 1863, then dispatched south to support Grant's investment of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg fell, they turned east and defeated Confederate General Johnston at the Battle of Jackson. Welsh contracted malaria in the southern swamps, and died in Cincinnati upon their return north. One of his men later recalled, "Had he lived, Welsh would undoubtedly have attained a much higher command. 1
1. Beauge, Eugene, in Albert, Allen D., Ed., History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865, Williamsport, PA: Grit Publ. Co, 1912, p. 79.
Custodial History
Almost all of the papers have been passed down through successive generations of Welsh's descendants, from Thomas Welsh's wife and children to his granddaughter, Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin, to her daughter Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. After Nancy Townsend's death, her son Charles Townsend passed them on to his cousin, Richard Wiggin (grandson of Emilie Benson Wiggin) in 2015.
A few papers passed out of the family's possession and found their way into other collections. Richard Abel of Columbia, PA began collecting Welsh papers and artifacts some years ago, and subsequently transferred this collection of Welsh materials to Richard Wiggin in 2012.
System of Arrangement
The collection is arranged in series:
Series A Thomas Welsh before the Mexican War
Series B Mexican War, 1846-1848
Series C Between the Mexican War and the Civil War, 1848-1861
Series D Ciivil War
Series E Post-Civil War
Series F Miscellaneous Family Papers
Date Range
1839-1932
Year Range From
1839
Year Range To
1932
Creator
Wiggin, Richard C.
People
Welsh, Thomas
Welsh, Annie Eunice Young
Welsh, Blanton Charles
Welsh, Effie
Welsh, Lilian
Welsh, Mary Young "Mazie"
Buchanan, James
Subjects
Letters
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Military orders
Military promotions
Personal correspondence
Political campaigns
Presidents--Election
Speeches, addresses, etc.
United States. Army--Military life
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Search Terms
Civil War
Correspondence, Personal
Letters
Mexican War
Military life
Military orders
Military promotions
Political campaigns
Presidential elections
Speeches
United States Army
Object Name
Archive
Language
English
Condition
Fair to good
Condition Date
2020-12-18
Condition Notes
Items are in fair to good condition.
Object ID
MG0828
Classification
MG0828
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pa.
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesE
Date Range
1866-1925
Description Level
Series
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
This collection of eight documents covers the years 1866 through 1925 and consists primarily of recollections by various family members of the life of Thomas Welsh. The series also includes a family history and poems written by Thomas Welsh and his daughter Effie Welsh.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men.
Welsh lost his father at the age of 2, and went to work to support his family at age 8. He had very little formal schooling, and was largely self-educated. In 1843, at age 19, he left Lancaster County for Washington City, then went west as an itinerant carpenter/laborer to Cincinnati, Little Rock, and Fort Smith.
When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, he enlisted in a Kentucky regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of Buena Vista (1847) from which he never fully recovered. Returning home to Columbia, he re-enlisted as a second lieutenant, assigned to the 11th U.S. infantry regiment in Mexico City. Within days of his arrival in Mexico City, he was declared unfit for service on account of his battle wound, and sent home again.
Back in Columbia as a civilian, he dabbled in politics, and received a patronage job in the Pennsylvania Main Line of Public Works (the rail and canal system connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). After several years, he opened up a grocery and dry goods store in Columbia's canal basin. He also became an insurance agent. In 1857, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and his reputation grew as a community leader. By 1860, he was president of the Borough Council, a founding member of the Columbia Board of Trade, Vice President of the Columbia Cricket Club, and a canal boat operator, in addition to a dry goods merchant, insurance agent, and Justice of the Peace. He had a wife, 5 surviving children, and legal guardianship of his sister's 4 children.
When Confederate forces shelled Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County, and took them into the field as their Captain. Within days, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, which served out its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley.
Returning to Harrisburg, he was appointed Commandant of Camp Curtin, the problem-plagued processing center for new recruits. In short order, Welsh cleaned up the camp's poor sanitary conditions, improved the health of the camp, and implemented soldierly discipline and training.
In October 1861, he resigned from his camp duties, and as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania, led his regiment into the field. After brief service outside of Washington, they were sent to South Carolina in December, where they were posted to Otter Island. After the battle of James Island, they were recalled to Newport News, in July 1862, then sent to guard Aquia Creek.
In September, now in brigade command in Burnsides' 9th Corps, Welsh chased Lee's Confederate army west into central Maryland. His brigade broke the enemy line in Fox's Gap, on Sept. 14, then 3 days later achieved the furthest Union advance at Antietam, reaching the edge of Sharpsburg, and nearly cutting off Lee's only avenue of escape. Welsh's gallantry earned him a field promotion to brigadier general, which Congress confirmed on March 13, 1863.
The 9th Corps (Welsh now in command of the 1st Division) was sent west in the spring of 1863, then dispatched south to support Grant's investment of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg fell, they turned east and defeated Confederate General Johnston at the Battle of Jackson. Welsh contracted malaria in the southern swamps, and died in Cincinnati upon their return north. One of his men later recalled, "Had he lived, Welsh would undoubtedly have attained a much higher command. 1
1. Beauge, Eugene, in Albert, Allen D., Ed., History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865, Williamsport, PA: Grit Publ. Co, 1912, p. 79.
Custodial History
Organized by Richard C. Wiggin prior to donation.
System of Arrangement
The collection is arranged in series:
Series A Thomas Welsh before the Mexican War
Series B Mexican War, 1846-1848
Series C Between the Mexican War and the Civil War, 1848-1861
Series D Ciivil War
Series E Post-Civil War
Series F Miscellaneous Family Papers
Date Range
1866-1925
Creation Date
1866-1925
Year Range From
1866
Year Range To
1925
Creator
Wiggin, Richard C.
People
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
Poetry
Biography
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Letters
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Search Terms
Civil War
Genealogy
Family history
Mexican War
Poetry
Biography
Letters
Extent
8 folders
Object Name
Archive
Language
English
Condition
Poor to excellent
Condition Date
2020-12-29
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesE
Parent Object ID
MG0828
Classification
MG0828
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Box 1
Notes
Added to PP 12/29/2020 by HST
Provenance: Most items passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesF
Date Range
1815-1938
Description Level
Series
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
This collection of documents, newspapers, and newspaper clippings covers the years 1815 through 1929 as well as genealogy and ephemera from the Welsh family Bible, 1850 through 1938. In addition, the series also includes 2 scrapbooks - the first containing articles from the late nineteenth century pertaining to Thomas Welsh and his family; the second containing newspaper articles and ephemera related to Thomas Welsh and his family from 1854 through 1936.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men.
Welsh lost his father at the age of 2, and went to work to support his family at age 8. He had very little formal schooling, and was largely self-educated. In 1843, at age 19, he left Lancaster County for Washington City, then went west as an itinerant carpenter/laborer to Cincinnati, Little Rock, and Fort Smith.
When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, he enlisted in a Kentucky regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of Buena Vista (1847) from which he never fully recovered. Returning home to Columbia, he re-enlisted as a second lieutenant, assigned to the 11th U.S. infantry regiment in Mexico City. Within days of his arrival in Mexico City, he was declared unfit for service on account of his battle wound, and sent home again.
Back in Columbia as a civilian, he dabbled in politics, and received a patronage job in the Pennsylvania Main Line of Public Works (the rail and canal system connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh). After several years, he opened up a grocery and dry goods store in Columbia's canal basin. He also became an insurance agent. In 1857, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and his reputation grew as a community leader. By 1860, he was president of the Borough Council, a founding member of the Columbia Board of Trade, Vice President of the Columbia Cricket Club, and a canal boat operator, in addition to a dry goods merchant, insurance agent, and Justice of the Peace. He had a wife, 5 surviving children, and legal guardianship of his sister's 4 children.
When Confederate forces shelled Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas Welsh raised and organized the first company of volunteers from Lancaster County, and took them into the field as their Captain. Within days, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, which served out its 90-day enlistment in the Shenandoah Valley.
Returning to Harrisburg, he was appointed Commandant of Camp Curtin, the problem-plagued processing center for new recruits. In short order, Welsh cleaned up the camp's poor sanitary conditions, improved the health of the camp, and implemented soldierly discipline and training.
In October 1861, he resigned from his camp duties, and as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania, led his regiment into the field. After brief service outside of Washington, they were sent to South Carolina in December, where they were posted to Otter Island. After the battle of James Island, they were recalled to Newport News, in July 1862, then sent to guard Aquia Creek.
In September, now in brigade command in Burnsides' 9th Corps, Welsh chased Lee's Confederate army west into central Maryland. His brigade broke the enemy line in Fox's Gap, on Sept. 14, then 3 days later achieved the furthest Union advance at Antietam, reaching the edge of Sharpsburg, and nearly cutting off Lee's only avenue of escape. Welsh's gallantry earned him a field promotion to brigadier general, which Congress confirmed on March 13, 1863.
The 9th Corps (Welsh now in command of the 1st Division) was sent west in the spring of 1863, then dispatched south to support Grant's investment of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg fell, they turned east and defeated Confederate General Johnston at the Battle of Jackson. Welsh contracted malaria in the southern swamps, and died in Cincinnati upon their return north. One of his men later recalled, "Had he lived, Welsh would undoubtedly have attained a much higher command. 1
1. Beauge, Eugene, in Albert, Allen D., Ed., History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865, Williamsport, PA: Grit Publ. Co, 1912, p. 79.
Custodial History
Folders 1-35 organized by Richard C. Wiggin prior to donation.
System of Arrangement
The collection is arranged in series:
Series A Thomas Welsh before the Mexican War
Series B Mexican War, 1846-1848
Series C Between the Mexican War and the Civil War, 1848-1861
Series D Ciivil War
Series E Post-Civil War
Series F Miscellaneous Family Papers
Date Range
1815-1938
Creation Date
1815-1938
Year Range From
1815
Year Range To
1938
Creator
Wiggin, Richard C.
People
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
Condolence notes
Letters
Genealogy
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Search Terms
Condolence notes
Letters
Correspondence
Mexican War
Genealogy
Civil War
Extent
35 folders
Object Name
Archive
Language
English
Condition
Poor to excellent
Condition Date
2020-12-29
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesF
Parent Object ID
MG0828
Classification
MG0828
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Boxes 1-2
Notes
Added to PP 12/29/2020 by HST
Provenance: Passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend.~~Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Less detail
Collection
James Buchanan Collection
Object ID
MG0096 F009 In03
Date Range
1963/03/23
  2 documents     2 images  
Description Level
Item
Collection
James Buchanan Collection
Description
“Secret Buchanan Letter Now Here.” Newspaper article regarding the private and confidential letter from James Buchanan to John Black regarding Mexico. Lancaster.
Custodial History
Digitization of the James Buchanan Collection was funded by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, PHMC Appl ID # 201808013051, 2019-2020.
Date Range
1963/03/23
People
Black, John
Buchanan, James
Subjects
United States. Department of State
Mexico
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Search Terms
United States Department of State
Mexico
James Buchanan
Buchanan Collections
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Articles
James Buchanan Presidential Library
Extent
1 item, 2 pages to scan, 28 x 22 cm
Object Name
Article
Language
English
Object ID
MG0096 F009 In03
Parent Object ID
MG0096
Other Number
MG-0096, Folder 009, Insert 03
Location
LancasterHistory, Lancaster, PA
Room
Archives South
Container
MG-0096, Box 1
Location of Originals
photocopy
Associated Material
James Buchanan Papers, Dickinson College Archives & Special Collections,
http://archives.dickinson.edu/collection-descriptions/james-buchanan-papers
James Buchanan and Harriet Lane Johnston Papers, Library of Congress,
https://www.loc.gov/collections/james-buchanan-and-harriet-lane-johnston-papers/
James Buchanan Papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania,
http://www2.hsp.org/collections/manuscripts/b/Buchanan0091.html
James Buchanan Papers, Penn State University Libraries,
https://libraries.psu.edu/findingaids/1458.htm
Related Item Notes
James Buchanan Family Papers
MG-96 James Buchanan Collection
Historical Society of Pennsylvania microfilm
Photograph collections
Curatorial collections
Wheatland Mansion
Notes
May 2020 PastPerfect Conversion
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact archives@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pa.
Images
Documents
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-62_F06
Date Range
No date
  1 document     2 images  
Description Level
Item
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
Handwritten autobiography of Thomas Welsh, written in third person. Text sketches his military career through the Battle of South Mountain. This is an unfinished draft, with portions crossed out. Initially written in July 1862 while he was at Hilton Head, South Carolina then the section about Acquia Creek, Virginia and South Mountain, Maryland were added in pencil after the Battle of South Mountain, September 14, 1862.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men. See MG0828 for more biographical information.
Custodial History
Cataloged by Richard C. Wiggin prior to donation.
Date Range
No date
Creation Date
No date
Creator
Welsh, Thomas, 1824-1863
People
Burnside, Ambrose Everett
Wright, Horatio Gouverneur
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Autobiography
Columbia (Pa.)
Camp Curtin (Pa.)
Port Royal (S.C.)
Otter Islands (S.C.)
James Island (S.C.)
South Mountain, Battle of, Md., 1862
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Buenavista (Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico)
Hilton Head (S.C.)
Fredericksburg (Va.)
Aquia Creek (Va.)
Search Terms
Civil War
Autobiography
Columbia
Mexican War
Buena Vista, Mexico
Camp Curtin, Pennsylvania
Port Royal, South Carolina
Otter Islands, South Carolina
James Island, South Carolina
South Mountain, Battle of
Hilton Head, South Carolina
Fredericksburg, Virginia
Aquia Creek, Virginia
Extent
1 item, 2 pages to scan
Object Name
Biography
Language
English
Condition
Good
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-62_F06
Parent Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-62
Other Numbers
TW-D-62-06
Classification
MG0828
MG0828_SeriesD-62
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Box 1
Notes
Added to PP 12/26/2020 by HST
Provenance: Passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Images
Documents
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-63_F19
Date Range
No date
  1 document     1 image  
Description Level
Item
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
Handwritten autobiography of Brigadier General Thomas Welsh. Mentions his birth in May 1824 and his military career beginning with his enlistment during the Mexican War through October 1861. Although undated, this was clearly written after November 29, 1862 when he was brevetted to Brigadier (more likely it was written shortly before or after he was commissioned in March 1863). Written in the third person. One page. Note: This is the third biography included in this collection, see also MG0828_SeriesA_F01 It01 and MG0828_SeriesD-62_F06.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men. See MG0828 for more biographical information.
Date Range
No date
Creation Date
No date
Creator
Welsh, Thomas, 1824-1863
People
Polk, James Knox
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
Autobiography
Columbia (Pa.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Buena Vista, Battle of, Mexico, 1847
Camp Curtin (Pa.)
Harrisburg (Pa.)
Search Terms
Autobiography
Columbia
Buena Vista, Battle of
Harrisburg
Camp Curtin, Pennsylvania
Washington, D.C.
Mexican War
Civil War
Extent
1 item, 2 pages to scan
Object Name
Biography
Language
English
Condition
Good
Condition Date
2020-08-17
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-63_F19
Parent Object ID
MG0828_SeriesD-63
Other Numbers
TW-D-63-19
Classification
MG0828
MG0828_SeriesD-63
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Box 1
Notes
Added to PP 12/27/2020 by HST
Provenance: Passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Images
Documents
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesE_F05
Date Range
No date
  1 document     4 images  
Description Level
Item
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
Handwritten account of the life and military career of Thomas Welsh by Blanton Welsh. Discusses the role of his mother Annie in keeping the family together and the careers of himself and three of his siblings: Mary, Lilian, and Thomas Anna.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men. See MG0828 for more biographical information.
Date Range
No date
Creation Date
No date
Creator
Welsh, Blanton Charles, 1860-1939
People
Welsh, Addie
Welsh, Alice
Welsh, Annie Eunice Young
Welsh, Blanton Charles
Welsh, Mary Young "Mazie"
Welsh, Lilian
Welsh, Thomas Anna
Welsh, Thomas
Welsh, Charles
Welsh, Nancy Daugherty
Taylor, Zachary
Scott, Winfield
Willcox, Orlando Bolivar
Blanton, Dr.
Subjects
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Vicksburg (Miss.)--History--Siege, 1863
Antietam, Battle of, Md., 1862
South Mountain, Battle of, Md., 1862
Columbia (Pa.)
Fort Smith (Ark.)
Mexico City (Mexico)
Cincinnati (Ohio)
Monterrey (Mexico)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Harrisburg (Pa.)
United States. Army
United States—History—Civil War, 1861-1865
Search Terms
Biography
Columbia
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Cincinnati, Ohio
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Buena Vista, Battle of
Monterrey, Mexico
Mexico City, Mexico
Harrisburg
South Mountain, Battle of
Antietam, Battle of
Vicksburg, Seige of
Family history
Mexican War
Civil War
Safe Harbor, Conestoga Twp.
Extent
1 item, 8 pages to scan
Object Name
Biography
Language
English
Condition
Good
Condition Date
2020-08-20
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesE_F05
Parent Object ID
MG0828_SeriesE
Other Numbers
TW-E-XX-01
Classification
MG0828
MG0828_SeriesE
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Box 1
Notes
Added to PP 12/29/2020 by HST
Provenance: Passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Images
Documents
Less detail
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesB_F03
Date Range
1847
  1 document     2 images  
Description Level
Item
Collection
General Thomas Welsh Family Papers
Description
Handwritten draft or copy of a pension application for the disability of his leg wound. Written by Thomas Welsh in longhand describing in detail the leg wound he received at Buena Vista. Undated and unsigned, but evidently written in the spring of 1847. Narrative includes dates of June 9, 1846 and February 23, 1847.
Admin/Biographical History
Thomas Welsh (1824-1863) was a Lancaster County native (born and raised in Columbia), who rose from hardscrabble origins to local fame, first as a Mexican War hero, and then as a brigadier general during the Civil War. He was well known and well respected as a no nonsense officer, for his leadership and gallantry in battle, for his dedication to the service of his country, and for his concern for the welfare of his men. See MG0828 for more biographical information.
Custodial History
Cataloged by Richard C. Wiggin prior to donation.
Date Range
1847
Creation Date
1847
Creator
Welsh, Thomas, 1824-1863
People
Cutter, George Washington
Welsh, Thomas
Subjects
Buena Vista, Battle of, Mexico, 1847
Pensions--United States
Mexican War, 1846-1848
Buenavista (Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico)
Battle casualties
Wounds and injuries
Search Terms
Buenavista, Mexico
Saltillo, Mexico
Pensions
Mexican War
Buena Vista, Battle of
Battle casualties
Wounds and injuries
Extent
1 item, 2 pages to scan
Object Name
Certificate
Language
English
Condition
Good
Condition Notes
Some stains, but generally good.
Object ID
MG0828_SeriesB_F03
Parent Object ID
MG0828_SeriesB
Other Numbers
TW-B-47-10
Classification
MG0828
MG0828_SeriesB
Location
LancasterHistory
Room
Archives North
Container
MG0828 Box 1
Notes
Added to PP 12/19/2020 by HST
Provenance: Passed down through the family, Blanton Charles Welsh to Emilie Benson (Welsh) Wiggin to Nancy Jane (Wiggin) Townsend. Acquired from: Chuck Townsend, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2016/05/15.
Access Conditions / Restrictions
Please use digital images and transcriptions when available. Original documents may be used by appointment. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org at least two weeks prior to visit.
Copyright
Images have been provided for research purposes only. Please contact research@lancasterhistory.org for a high-resolution image and permission to publish.
LancasterHistory retains the rights to the digital images and content presented. The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. Any images and data downloaded, printed or photocopied for these purposes should provide a citation. All other uses beyond those allowed by fair use require written permission.
Permission for reproduction and/or publication must be obtained in writing from LancasterHistory. Some items are photocopies from other collections--researchers must obtain permission for reproduction and publication from the owner of the original material.
Persons wishing to publish any material from this site must assume all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright or other use restrictions. Publication fees may apply.
Credit
Courtesy of LancasterHistory, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Images
Documents
Less detail

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